Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome that has been subdivided into physiological phenotypes and molecular endotypes. The most specific phenotypic manifestation of asthma is indirect airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and a prominent molecular endotype is the presence of type-2 inflammation. The underlying basis for type-2 inflammation and its relationship to AHR are incompletely understood. We assessed the expression of type-2 cytokines in the airways of subjects with and without asthma who were extensively characterized for AHR. Using quantitative morphometry of the airway wall, we identified a shift in mast cells from the submucosa to the airway epithelium specifically associated with both type-2 inflammation and indirect AHR. Using ex vivo modeling of primary airway epithelial cells in organotypic co-culture with mast cells, we have shown that epithelial-derived IL-33 uniquely induced type-2 cytokines in mast cells, which regulated the expression of epithelial IL33 in a feedforward loop. This feedforward loop was accentuated in epithelial cells derived from subjects with asthma. These results demonstrate that type-2 inflammation and indirect AHR in asthma are related to a shift in mast cell infiltration to the airway epithelium, and that mast cells cooperate with epithelial cells through IL-33 signaling to regulate type-2 inflammation.
Matthew C. Altman, Ying Lai, James D. Nolin, Sydney Long, Chien-Chang Chen, Adrian M. Piliponsky, William A. Altemeier, Megan Larmore, Charles W. Frevert, Michael S. Mulligan, Steven F. Ziegler, Jason S. Debley, Michael C. Peters, Teal S. Hallstrand
Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas including colon, stomach, and pancreatic cancers, has long been considered as an attractive target for active and passive vaccination. While progress in antibodies targeting tumor-associated protein antigens resulted in an impressive array of therapeutics for cancer treatment, similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a detailed understanding of the singular characteristics of these antigens. We have addressed this issue by analyzing antibodies derived from patients immunized with an sLeA/KLH vaccine. These antibodies were engineered to mediate tumor clearance in vivo in preclinical models through Fc-FcγR interactions. However, in contrast to protein antigens in which hFcγRIIIA engagement was both necessary and sufficient to mediate tumor clearance in both preclinical and clinical settings, a similar selective dependence was not seen for anti-sLeA antibodies. Thus, re-engineering the Fc portion of sLeA-targeting antibodies to broadly enhance their affinity for activating FcγRs led to an enhanced therapeutic effect. These findings will facilitate the development of more efficient anticancer therapies and further advance this promising class of therapeutic antibodies into clinical use.
Polina Weitzenfeld, Stylianos Bournazos, Jeffrey V. Ravetch
BACKGROUND. Impaired T-cell immunity in transplant recipients is associated with infection-related morbidity and mortality. We recently reported the successful use of adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) against drug-resistant/recurrent cytomegalovirus in solid-organ transplant recipients. METHODS. In the present study, we employed high-throughput T-cell receptor Vβ sequencing and T-cell functional profiling to delineate the impact of ACT on T-cell repertoire remodelling in the context of pre-therapy immunity and ACT products. RESULTS. These analyses indicated that a clinical response was coincident with significant changes in the T-cell receptor Vβ landscape post-therapy. This restructuring was associated with the emergence of effector memory (EM) T cells in responding patients, while non-responders displayed dramatic pre-therapy T-cell expansions with minimal change following ACT. Furthermore, immune reconstitution included both adoptively transferred clonotypes and endogenous clonotypes not detected in the ACT products. CONCLUSION. These observations demonstrate that immune control following ACT requires significant repertoire remodelling, which may be impaired in non-responders due to the pre-existing immune environment. Immunological interventions that can modulate this environment may improve clinical outcomes.
Corey Smith, Dillon Corvino, Leone Beagley, Sweera Rehan, Michelle A. Neller, Pauline Crooks, Katherine K. Matthews, Matthew Solomon, Laetitia Le Texier, Scott Campbell, Ross S. Francis, Daniel Chambers, Rajiv Khanna
Background: Idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a hematologic illness involving cytokine-induced lymphoproliferation, systemic inflammation, cytopenias, and life-threatening multi-organ dysfunction. The molecular underpinnings of interleukin-6(IL-6)-blockade refractory patients remain unknown; no targeted therapies exist. In this study, we searched for therapeutic targets in IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD patients with the thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever/elevated C-reactive protein, reticulin myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, organomegaly (TAFRO) clinical subtype. Methods: We analyzed tissues and blood samples from three IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD-TAFRO patients. Cytokine panels, quantitative serum proteomics, flow cytometry of PBMCs, and pathway analyses were employed to identify novel therapeutic targets. To confirm elevated mTOR signaling, a candidate therapeutic target from the above assays, immunohistochemistry was performed for phosphorylated S6, a read-out of mTOR activation, in three iMCD lymph node tissue samples and controls. Proteomic, immunophenotypic, and clinical response assessments were performed to quantify the effects of administration of the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus. Results: Studies of three IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD cases revealed increased CD8+ T cell activation, VEGF-A, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activity. Administration of sirolimus significantly attenuated CD8+ T cell activation and decreased VEGF-A levels. Sirolimus induced clinical benefit responses in all three patients with durable and ongoing remissions of 66, 19, and 19 months. Conclusion: This precision medicine approach identifies PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling as the first pharmacologically-targetable pathogenic process in IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD. Prospective evaluation of sirolimus in treatment-refractory iMCD is planned (NCT03933904). Funding: Castleman’s Awareness & Research Effort/Castleman Disease Collaborative Network, Penn Center for Precision Medicine, University Research Foundation, Intramural NIH funding, and National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.
David C. Fajgenbaum, Ruth-Anne Langan, Alberto Sada Japp, Helen L. Partridge, Sheila K. Pierson, Amrit Singh, Daniel J. Arenas, Jason R. Ruth, Christopher S. Nabel, Katie Stone, Mariko Okumura, Anthony Schwarer, Fábio Freire Jose, Nelson Hamerschlak, Gerald B. Wertheim, Michael B. Jordan, Adam D. Cohen, Vera Krymskaya, Arthur Rubenstein, Michael R. Betts, Taku Kambayashi, Frits van Rhee, Thomas S. Uldrick
Checkpoint blockade antibodies have been approved as immunotherapy for multiple types of cancer, but the response rate and efficacy are still limited. There are few immunogenic cell death (ICD)-inducing drugs available that can kill cancer cells, enhance tumor immunogenicity, increase the in vivo immune infiltration, and thereby boosting a tumor response to immunotherapy. So far, the ICD markers have been identified as the few immuno-stimulating characteristics of dead cells, but whether the presence of such ICD markers on tumor cells translates into enhanced antitumor immunity in vivo is still investigational. To identify anticancer drugs that could induce tumor cell death and boost T cell response, we performed drug screenings based on both an ICD reporter assay and T cell activation assay. We identified that teniposide, a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor, could induce high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release and type I interferon signaling in tumor cells, and teniposide-treated tumor cells could activate antitumor T cell response both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, teniposide induced tumor cell DNA damage and innate immune signaling including NF-κB activation and STING-dependent type I interferon signaling, both of which contribute to the activation of dendritic cells and subsequent T cells. Furthermore, teniposide potentiated the antitumor efficacy of anti-PD1 on multiple types of mouse tumor models. Our findings showed that teniposide could trigger tumor immunogenicity, and enabled a potential chemo-immunotherapeutic approach to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD1 immunotherapy.
Zining Wang, Jiemin Chen, Jie Hu, Hongxia Zhang, Feifei Xu, Wenzhuo He, Xiaojuan Wang, Mengyun Li, Wenhua Lu, Gucheng Zeng, Penghui Zhou, Peng Huang, Siyu Chen, Wende Li, Liang-ping Xia, Xiaojun Xia
T cell autoreactivity is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases but can also benefit self-maintenance and foster tissue repair. Herein, we investigated whether heart-specific T cells exert salutary or detrimental effects in the context of myocardial infarction (MI), the leading cause of death worldwide. After screening more than 150 class-II-restricted epitopes, we found that myosin heavy chain alpha (MYHCA) was a dominant cardiac antigen triggering post-MI CD4+ T cell activation in mice. Transferred MYHCA614-629-specific CD4+ T (TCR-M) cells selectively accumulated in the myocardium and mediastinal lymph nodes (med-LN) of infarcted mice, acquired a Treg phenotype with a distinct pro-healing gene expression profile, and mediated cardioprotection. Myocardial Treg cells were also detected in autopsies from patients who suffered a MI. Noninvasive PET/CT imaging using a CXCR4 radioligand revealed enlarged med-LNs with increased cellularity in MI-patients. Notably, the med-LN alterations observed in MI patients correlated with the infarct size and cardiac function. Taken together, the results obtained in our study provide evidence showing that MI-context induces pro-healing T cell autoimmunity in mice and confirms the existence of an analogous heart/med-LN/T cell axis in MI patients.
Max Rieckmann, Murilo Delgobo, Chiara Gaal, Lotte Büchner, Philipp Steinau, Dan Reshef, Cristina Gil-Cruz, Ellis N. ter Horst, Malte Kircher, Theresa Reiter, Katrin G. Heinze, Hans W.M. Niessen, Paul A.J. Krijnen, Anja M. van der Laan, Jan J. Piek, Charlotte Koch, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Constantin Lapa, Wolfgang R. Bauer, Burkhard Ludewig, Nir Friedman, Stefan Frantz, Ulrich Hofmann, Gustavo Campos Ramos
A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. Development of broadly-neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute infection is associated with HCV clearance, but the viral epitopes of these plasma antibodies are unknown. Identification of these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced by a vaccine. Here, we present development and application of a high-throughput method that deconvolutes polyclonal anti-HCV NAbs in plasma, delineating the epitope specificities of anti-HCV NAbs in acute infection plasma of forty-four humans with subsequent clearance or persistence of HCV. Remarkably, we identified multiple broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) combinations that were associated with greater plasma neutralizing breadth and with HCV clearance. These studies have potential to inform new strategies for vaccine development by identifying bNAb combinations in plasma associated with natural clearance of HCV, while also providing a high-throughput assay that could identify these responses after vaccination trials.
Valerie J. Kinchen, Guido Massaccesi, Andrew I. Flyak, Madeleine C. Mankowski, Michelle D. Colbert, William O. Osburn, Stuart C. Ray, Andrea L. Cox, James E. Crowe Jr., Justin R. Bailey
Histone H3K27 demethylase, JMJD3 plays a critical role in gene expression and T-cell differentiation. However, the role and mechanisms of JMJD3 in T cell trafficking remain poorly understood. Here we show that JMJD3 deficiency in CD4+ T cells resulted in an accumulation of T cells in the thymus, and reduction of T cell number in the secondary lymphoid organs. We identified PDLIM4 as a significantly down-regulated target gene in JMJD3-deficient CD4+ T cells by gene profiling and ChIP-seq analyses. We further showed that PDLIM4 functioned as an adaptor protein to interact with S1P1 and filamentous actin (F-actin), thus serving as a key regulator of T cell trafficking. Mechanistically, JMJD3 bound to the promoter and gene body regions of Pdlim4 gene and regulated its expression by interacting with zinc finger transcription factor KLF2. Our findings have identified Pdlim4 as a JMJD3 target gene that affects T-cell trafficking by cooperating with S1P1, and provided insights into the molecular mechanisms by which JMJD3 regulates genes involved in T cell trafficking.
Chuntang Fu, Qingtian Li, Jia Zou, Changsheng Xing, Mei Luo, Bingnan Yin, Junjun Chu, Jiaming Yu, Xin Liu, Helen Y. Wang, Rong-Fu Wang
This study investigates the relationship between helminth infection and allergic sensitization by assessing the influence of preexisting allergy on the outcome of helminth infections, rather than the more traditional approach in which the helminth infection precedes the onset of allergy. Here we used a murine model of house dust mite–induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation followed by Ascaris infection to demonstrate that allergic sensitization drives an eosinophil-rich pulmonary type 2 immune response (Th2 cells, M2 macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, IL-33, IL-4, IL-13, and mucus) that directly hinders larval development and reduces markedly the parasite burden in the lungs. This effect is dependent on the presence of eosinophils, as eosinophil-deficient mice were unable to limit parasite development or numbers. In vivo administration of neutralizing antibodies against CD4 prior to HDM sensitization significantly reduced eosinophils in the lungs, resulting in the reversal of the HDM-induced Ascaris larval killing. Our data suggest that HDM allergic sensitization drives a response that mimics a primary Ascaris infection, such that CD4+ Th2-mediated eosinophil-dependent helminth larval killing in the lung tissue occurs. This study provides insight into the mechanisms underlying tissue-specific responses that drive a protective response against the early stages of the helminths prior to their establishing long-lasting infections in the host.
Pedro H. Gazzinelli-Guimaraes, Rafael de Queiroz Prado, Alessandra Ricciardi, Sandra Bonne-Année, Joshua Sciurba, Erik P. Karmele, Ricardo T. Fujiwara, Thomas B. Nutman
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), a subpopulation of stromal cells in lymphoid organs and fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) in adipose tissue, play immune-regulatory roles in the host response to infection and may be useful as a form of cell therapy in sepsis. Here, we found an unexpected major role of TLR9 in controlling peritoneal immune cell recruitment and FALC formation at baseline and after sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). TLR9 regulated peritoneal immunity via suppression of chemokine production by FRCs. Adoptive transfer of TLR9-deficient FRCs more effectively decreased mortality, bacterial load, and systemic inflammation after CLP than WT FRCs. Importantly, we found that activation of TLR9 signaling suppressed chemokine production by human adipose tissue–derived FRCs. Together, our results indicate that TLR9 plays critical roles in regulating peritoneal immunity via suppression of chemokine production by FRCs. These data form a knowledge basis upon which to design new therapeutic strategies to improve the therapeutic efficacy of FRC-based treatments for sepsis and immune dysregulation diseases.
Li Xu, Yiming Li, Chenxuan Yang, Patricia Loughran, Hong Liao, Rosemary Hoffman, Timothy R. Billiar, Meihong Deng